The FBI 100 aka "Find me" task at EKOPARTY CTF was exactly this:
So basically we were given the SSH server address within the TOR network, but no credentials - i.e. one was not able to log in. This leaves us only with the few first packets of SSH to play with, which thankfully include server authentication - i.e. the fingerprints.
When first connecting with the host we got this:
$ torify ssh ekosshlons2uweke.onion
The authenticity of host 'ekosshlons2uweke.onion (127.0.69.0)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is c1:aa:9a:bb:e3:68:f5:9d:e2:ff:ee:84:6c:ca:25:96.
The fingerprint is unique to the server's key, and there are actually online scanners and databases which gather all the fingerprints and allow one to look them up and check where (i.e. at which IP(s)) were they found. Shodan is one of them (if you though about Sentient Hyper-Optimized Data Access Network then... no, that's not the one... hopefully), however looking up the key yields no results:
That being said, ECDSA is not the only schema usually used with SSH - there are also others (e.g. RSA). The easiest way to enumerate the keys is to use ssh-keyscan:
$ torify ssh-keyscan ekosshlons2uweke.onion 2>/dev/null
ekosshlons2uweke.onion ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 AAAAE2VjZHNhLXNoYTItbmlzdHAyNTYAAAAIbmlzdHAyNTYAAABBBCbc0Xep7BgaSkwGNHbaeWqfgnTDa3Zg3VIfr7KhETIxsJKnJg7v6a2l9m9kfLdRKxVW+SaEFUFTvDlsvoY6w8g=
ekosshlons2uweke.onion ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQCu3ad/Od8xajteAd1g05rWhEe9/jnYeHDAi3dD48WrUbHg9JzK48tvRhyVR4yHIlCd9VItZRB83tLKWryBJRDedP8KLcOxwGAUjAXoVzsdaffJuRLXw0GZHyWce+lOA+TLA+jH5hB3mB1kCDvX7ZrvHeMYvHXEJfiX/BIcx50ijo5+ndlcWnkfhbWqR2Neg+4UHR8zsB9UZQJxZpe3HNpv89L0nyUrQ9ap8nqqFGfzVDUVoV9gDl+O4OguliGDPo/9TGz+LPr3T/3gc5knsyeTLP2/9uWO2zlw6Ib2cCU59wLfiRx+SMzVJA/HHBQ2jTJjwZmu5Kggy9K3SPQjjamr
To get the fingerprints in a standard form you have to run ssh-keygen on the above output:
$ ssh-keygen -l -f /tmp/xxx
256 c1:aa:9a:bb:e3:68:f5:9d:e2:ff:ee:84:6c:ca:25:96 ekosshlons2uweke.onion (ECDSA)
2048 4f:b2:e5:dd:63:86:dd:52:d1:d5:a4:d3:3c:55:e5:2e ekosshlons2uweke.onion (RSA)
Having the above we could look up the RSA (second) key in Shodan, which did in fact give up what we looked for:
Since I'm not fluent with SSH it took me about 15 minutes to solve this task, most of which consisted of googling how to get SSH to display different keys than the default one.